However the 2015 slowdown in market growth affected VTMs as well. “We saw the market’s sudden recognition that the cigarette industry seems to be in serious trouble, disrupted by the rise of vaping,” Mad Money’s Jim Cramer stated April 2018. “Over the course of three short days, the tobacco stocks were bent, they were spindled and they were mutilated by the realization that electronic cigarettes have become a serious threat to the old-school cigarette makers,” he added. In บุหรี่ไฟฟ้า , a vaping industry organization released a report stating that a possible US ban on e-cigarettes flavors can potentially effect greater than 150,000 jobs around the US.
JUUL aerosol inhalation for 3 months does not induce cardiac, renal, or liver fibrosis
It is well established that high concentrations of nicotine inhalation are toxic to the human body in a variety of ways (Mishra et al., 2015). JUUL pods have been found to have the highest nicotine concentration of any of the other cartomizer style e-cigarette or refill fluids (Omaiye et al., 2019). Previous studies utilizing continuous systemic delivery of nicotine via implanted pumps concluded that nicotine did not contribute to the development of neuroinflammation.
Daily JUUL inhalation for 3 months is associated with neuroinflammation
There is concern that children may progress from vaping to smoking. Adolescents are likely to underestimate nicotine’s addictiveness. Vulnerability to the brain-modifying effects of nicotine, along with youthful experimentation with e-cigarettes, could lead to a lifelong addiction. A long-term nicotine addiction from using a vape may result in using other tobacco products. The majority of addiction to nicotine starts during youth and young adulthood.
But we absolutely agree that more work is needed to fully define the impact of e-cigarette use at the protein, cellular, and organ level. To obtain the most broad and detailed data possible, we assessed gene transcription across the lung via RNAseq . We have added these RNAseq data, with relevant additions to the Abstract, Methods, Results and Discussion sections.
However, nicotine levels are not the same in all types of e-cigarettes, and sometimes product labels do not list the true nicotine content. Pod mods are a type of electronic cigarette used to vape nicotine through a mouthpiece connected to the body of the device by magnets. These devices are a newer generation of e-cigarettes that are often marketed to a younger crowd that do not wish to attract attention gained through regular e-cigarettes or traditional tobacco-burning cigarettes. Pod mods contain a disposable cartridge and have coils that cannot be removed or changed.
Most in vitro studies concluded that JUUL aerosols are cytotoxic and impair cell function (Pinkston et al., 2020; Pearce et al., 2020; Muthumalage et al., 2019; O’Farrell et al., 2021; Rao et al., 2020; Ghosh et al., 2021). Additional studies defined the chemical profiles of JUUL flavored cartridges (Ramirez et al., 2020) or examined aerosol emission and oxidant yields from flavored JUUL pods (Talih et al., 2019; Reilly et al., 2019). These studies concluded that while JUUL pods had significantly lower oxidant yields in comparison to combustible cigarettes, the nicotine concentrations were substantially greater (Talih et al., 2019; Reilly et al., 2019; Omaiye et al., 2019).
Of note, we did not observe any overt behavioral changes – we closely observe the mice both during and after exposures and make notes regarding grouping, fur, and activity level – none of which were changed by the different vaping exposures. We have added the lack of dedicated behavioral and psychological evaluations as a limitation of this work and as an opportunity for discovery in future studies . Contrary to our initial expectations, we did not find significant changes in autonomic tone or pulmonary function with daily, long-term JUUL aerosol exposure.
E-cigarettes that are not reusable may contribute to the problem of electronic waste. While the data on health effects of conventional tobacco are extensive, the data on e-cigarettes and vaping devices are less established due to their recent entry to the market (Tsai et al., 2020; Bozier et al., 2020). In particular, research in this area is impeded by the rapid evolution of vaping devices.